A high-fat compared with a high-carbohydrate breakfast enhances 24-hour fat oxidation in older adults

Nikki C. Bush, Holly E.S. Resuehr, Laura Lee Goree, Julie L. Locher, Molly S. Bray, Taraneh Soleymani, Barbara A. Gower

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: The ability to oxidize fat is associated with a lower risk of chronic metabolic disease. Preclinical data in mice showed that a high-fat "breakfast" increased 24-h fat oxidation relative to a high-carbohydrate breakfast. Objectives: The objectives of this studywere to determine whether the timing ofmacronutrient intake in humans affects daily fuel utilization and to examine associations between fuel utilization and metabolic indexes. Methods: Participants were 29 healthy sedentary men and women (aged 55-75 y) with a body mass index (kg/m2) between 25 and 35. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a high-fat breakfast (FB; 35% carbohydrate, 20% protein, 45% fat; n = 13) or a high-carbohydrate breakfast (CB; 60% carbohydrate, 20% protein, 20% fat; n = 16) for 4 wk while consuming a "neutral" lunch and dinner. Twenty-four-hour and postprandial respiratory quotients (RQs) were measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry. Insulin and glucose measures including insulin sensitivity were determined by an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Measures were taken at baseline and after the 4-wk intervention. Group-by-time interactions were determined by 2-factor repeated-measures mixed-model ANOVA. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to determine associations of 24-h RQs with metabolic measures after the intervention. Results: There was a significant group-by-time interaction for change in the 24-h RQ [FB (mean ± SD): 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.86 ± 0.02; CB: 0.88 ± 0.02 for both; P < 0.05], breakfast RQ (FB: 0.88 ± 0.03 to 0.86 ± 0.03; CB: 0.89 ± 0.02 to 0.90 ± 0.02; P < 0.01), and lunch RQ (FB: 0.089 ± 0.03 to 0.85 ± 0.03; CB: 0.89 ± 0.03 for both; P < 0.01). In the CB group at follow-up, 24-h RQ was positively associated with fasting glucose (r = 0.66, P < 0.05), glucose area under the curve (AUC) (r = 0.51, P < 0.05), and insulin AUC (r = 0.52, P < 0.05) and inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.51, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Themacronutrient composition of breakfast affects substrate utilization throughout the day in older adults. The consumption of a high-fat, lower-carbohydrate breakfast may reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03164200. J Nutr 2018;148:220-226.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages220-226
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume148
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Breakfast
Fats
Carbohydrates
Lunch
Metabolic Diseases
Glucose
Area Under Curve
Insulin Resistance
Insulin
Indirect Calorimetry
Glucose Tolerance Test
Meals
Fasting
Analysis of Variance
Proteins
Body Mass Index
Chronic Disease

Keywords

  • Dietary intervention
  • Fat oxidation
  • Insulin sensitivity
  • Meal timing
  • Respiratory quotient
  • Whole-room calorimetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Bush, N. C., Resuehr, H. E. S., Goree, L. L., Locher, J. L., Bray, M. S., Soleymani, T., & Gower, B. A. (2018). A high-fat compared with a high-carbohydrate breakfast enhances 24-hour fat oxidation in older adults. Journal of Nutrition, 148(2), 220-226. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxx040

A high-fat compared with a high-carbohydrate breakfast enhances 24-hour fat oxidation in older adults. / Bush, Nikki C.; Resuehr, Holly E.S.; Goree, Laura Lee; Locher, Julie L.; Bray, Molly S.; Soleymani, Taraneh; Gower, Barbara A.

In: Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 148, No. 2, 01.01.2018, p. 220-226.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bush, NC, Resuehr, HES, Goree, LL, Locher, JL, Bray, MS, Soleymani, T & Gower, BA 2018, 'A high-fat compared with a high-carbohydrate breakfast enhances 24-hour fat oxidation in older adults' Journal of Nutrition, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 220-226. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxx040
Bush, Nikki C. ; Resuehr, Holly E.S. ; Goree, Laura Lee ; Locher, Julie L. ; Bray, Molly S. ; Soleymani, Taraneh ; Gower, Barbara A. / A high-fat compared with a high-carbohydrate breakfast enhances 24-hour fat oxidation in older adults. In: Journal of Nutrition. 2018 ; Vol. 148, No. 2. pp. 220-226.
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AU - Bush, Nikki C.

AU - Resuehr, Holly E.S.

AU - Goree, Laura Lee

AU - Locher, Julie L.

AU - Bray, Molly S.

AU - Soleymani, Taraneh

AU - Gower, Barbara A.

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N2 - Background: The ability to oxidize fat is associated with a lower risk of chronic metabolic disease. Preclinical data in mice showed that a high-fat "breakfast" increased 24-h fat oxidation relative to a high-carbohydrate breakfast. Objectives: The objectives of this studywere to determine whether the timing ofmacronutrient intake in humans affects daily fuel utilization and to examine associations between fuel utilization and metabolic indexes. Methods: Participants were 29 healthy sedentary men and women (aged 55-75 y) with a body mass index (kg/m2) between 25 and 35. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a high-fat breakfast (FB; 35% carbohydrate, 20% protein, 45% fat; n = 13) or a high-carbohydrate breakfast (CB; 60% carbohydrate, 20% protein, 20% fat; n = 16) for 4 wk while consuming a "neutral" lunch and dinner. Twenty-four-hour and postprandial respiratory quotients (RQs) were measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry. Insulin and glucose measures including insulin sensitivity were determined by an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Measures were taken at baseline and after the 4-wk intervention. Group-by-time interactions were determined by 2-factor repeated-measures mixed-model ANOVA. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to determine associations of 24-h RQs with metabolic measures after the intervention. Results: There was a significant group-by-time interaction for change in the 24-h RQ [FB (mean ± SD): 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.86 ± 0.02; CB: 0.88 ± 0.02 for both; P < 0.05], breakfast RQ (FB: 0.88 ± 0.03 to 0.86 ± 0.03; CB: 0.89 ± 0.02 to 0.90 ± 0.02; P < 0.01), and lunch RQ (FB: 0.089 ± 0.03 to 0.85 ± 0.03; CB: 0.89 ± 0.03 for both; P < 0.01). In the CB group at follow-up, 24-h RQ was positively associated with fasting glucose (r = 0.66, P < 0.05), glucose area under the curve (AUC) (r = 0.51, P < 0.05), and insulin AUC (r = 0.52, P < 0.05) and inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.51, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Themacronutrient composition of breakfast affects substrate utilization throughout the day in older adults. The consumption of a high-fat, lower-carbohydrate breakfast may reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03164200. J Nutr 2018;148:220-226.

AB - Background: The ability to oxidize fat is associated with a lower risk of chronic metabolic disease. Preclinical data in mice showed that a high-fat "breakfast" increased 24-h fat oxidation relative to a high-carbohydrate breakfast. Objectives: The objectives of this studywere to determine whether the timing ofmacronutrient intake in humans affects daily fuel utilization and to examine associations between fuel utilization and metabolic indexes. Methods: Participants were 29 healthy sedentary men and women (aged 55-75 y) with a body mass index (kg/m2) between 25 and 35. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a high-fat breakfast (FB; 35% carbohydrate, 20% protein, 45% fat; n = 13) or a high-carbohydrate breakfast (CB; 60% carbohydrate, 20% protein, 20% fat; n = 16) for 4 wk while consuming a "neutral" lunch and dinner. Twenty-four-hour and postprandial respiratory quotients (RQs) were measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry. Insulin and glucose measures including insulin sensitivity were determined by an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Measures were taken at baseline and after the 4-wk intervention. Group-by-time interactions were determined by 2-factor repeated-measures mixed-model ANOVA. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to determine associations of 24-h RQs with metabolic measures after the intervention. Results: There was a significant group-by-time interaction for change in the 24-h RQ [FB (mean ± SD): 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.86 ± 0.02; CB: 0.88 ± 0.02 for both; P < 0.05], breakfast RQ (FB: 0.88 ± 0.03 to 0.86 ± 0.03; CB: 0.89 ± 0.02 to 0.90 ± 0.02; P < 0.01), and lunch RQ (FB: 0.089 ± 0.03 to 0.85 ± 0.03; CB: 0.89 ± 0.03 for both; P < 0.01). In the CB group at follow-up, 24-h RQ was positively associated with fasting glucose (r = 0.66, P < 0.05), glucose area under the curve (AUC) (r = 0.51, P < 0.05), and insulin AUC (r = 0.52, P < 0.05) and inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.51, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Themacronutrient composition of breakfast affects substrate utilization throughout the day in older adults. The consumption of a high-fat, lower-carbohydrate breakfast may reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03164200. J Nutr 2018;148:220-226.

KW - Dietary intervention

KW - Fat oxidation

KW - Insulin sensitivity

KW - Meal timing

KW - Respiratory quotient

KW - Whole-room calorimetry

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